Linux commands and shortcuts


a) ls

The ls command lists the contents of a directory.The default is the current directory. You may think it is a simple command command that has very little usage.But you are wrong. There are many options for ls command.
ls -l for a detailed (long) listing
ls -F to display file type information (for more on file types and the permissions).

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b) cp

Copy SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY.
cp copies the contents of file1 to file2 or it copies all files to directory:

cp file1 file2
cp file1 … fileN dir

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Note: A symbolic link is a special file that points to another file or directory, which is called the target. Once created, a symbolic link can be used in place of the target file name.

Follow Symbolic links means if we copy a directory that has a shortcut or symbolic link, then if we don’t specify -L, then the symbolic links won’t be updated as per the new location.

c) mv

mv renames file1 to file2. In the second form, it moves all files to the directory:
mv file1 file2
mv file1 … fileN dir

d) touch

The touch command creates a file. If the file already exists, touch does not change it, but it does update the timestamp.
touch fileName

e) rm

To delete (remove) a file, use rm. After you remov e a file, it’s gone. Do not expect to be able to “undelete”anything.
rm file

f) echo

The echo command prints its arguments to the standard output:
echo Hello there.

Directory Commands

a) cd

The cd command changes the shell’s current working directory to a given directory.If you omit dir, the shell returns to your home directory.
cd dir

b) mkdir

The mkdir command creates a new directory.
mkdir dir

c) rmdir

The rmdir command removes the directory.
rmdir dir


The shell is capable of matching simple patterns with files in the current working directory.

a) *

The simplest of these is the star character (*), which means match any number of arbitrary characters.
echo *
Prints a list of files in the current directory.
echo at*
Matches all files starting with at;
echo *at
Matches files that end with at.
echo *at*
Matches any files that contains at.

b) ?

Match exactly one arbitrary character.
echo b?at
Matches boat and brat.

Intermediate Commands

a) grep

prints the lines from a file or input stream that match an expression.
grep Hello /etc/test.txt
Print the lines in the file /etc/test.txt that contain the text Hello
Hello /etc/*
To check on every file in /etc that contains root, you could use this

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CONTROL-D on a line by itself stops the current standard input entry (and often terminates a program).

CONTROL-C terminates a program regardless of its input or output.

CONTROL-Z stops a program, but doesn’t terminate it.

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